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不要被表象蒙蔽,你吃的东西可能是其他材料伪装的

时间:2017-09-02 16:40:58   来源:    评论

美食

In a world where modern chemistry has allowed almost anything to be flavoured or coloured like almost anything else, you can stumble across some surprising substitutions. Take, for instance, the example of purple carrot juice.

在调味品和上色剂充满现代化学物质的世界里,偶尔你会发现一些出人意料的替代品。这里以紫色胡萝卜汁为例。

Perhaps the purple carrot is not a vegetable you have much experience with, or ever thought about. When asked which variety was sweeter, orange or purple, one seller at my old farmer’s market’s answer was swift and unequivocal: “Orange.” At least with the varieties he was growing, the more common colour was the tastier. But purple carrots, whose hue comes from their heavy load of anthocyanins, have other talents.

也许你对紫色的胡萝卜不太了解,或者你曾经想过的。如果你问他橙色和紫色的胡萝卜哪个更甜,我认识的一位市场卖菜的老农会迅速并明确的回答说橙色更甜。至少在他种植的蔬菜中,常规颜色的蔬菜才更美味。但是紫色胡萝卜的颜色来源于它高含量的花青素,而这有其他的用途。

Anthocyanins are present in blueberries, black rice, and even some autumn leaves. They operate as antioxidants, neutralising damaging oxygen species, which has led them to be darlings of the super-food industry. But that rich hue is another benefit – anthocynanins from various plant sources, like purple carrots, are approved by the EU and the UK to be used as food colourants.

蓝莓、黑米、甚至一些秋叶中含有花青素。它们作为抗氧化剂来中和有害的氧类,这个特性使它们成为超级食品工业的新宠。此外拥有丰富颜色的花青素的另一大好处就是欧盟和英国允许这些从植物中(如胡萝卜)提取的花青素作为食用色素。

Depending on their origins and specific chemistry, anthocyanins can turn food red, blue, or purple. These natural colourings can be used in foods that you would never connect with carrots or other sources of the molecules. Scientists have experimented with purple-carrot-tinged yoghurt and yoghurt coloured with extracts of the Peruvian berry B. boliviana. Even purple corn cobs have been tapped. Researchers found that they turn milk an attractive, vivid hue.

不同来源和化学成分的花青素可以把食物染成不一样的颜色,比如红色、蓝色或紫色。这些在食物中添加的天然的颜色可能让你永远都不会把这些颜色和胡萝卜及其他分子来源的食材联系在一起。科学家们也尝试过使用秘鲁浆果的提取物把酸奶和乳酸酪染成紫红色。甚至也试过在紫玉米里面提取。研究人员发现,通过使用这些提取物,他们可以赋予牛奶一种引人注意、鲜明的颜色。

Another switcheroo is one you may have noticed: the tendency for some exotic fruit juices to be, on closer inspection of the ingredients label, mostly apple or grape juice. Consumer rights group wrote in 2012 that Tesco’s mango and passion fruit smoothie contained 47% apple juice, 23% mango puree and 4% passion fruit puree. These inexpensive juices make a handy, well-understood vehicle for more expensive flavours.

另一个你可能注意到的转变趋势是近年来国外果汁的大量引进,如果仔细地检查它们的成分标签,你会发现主要是苹果或葡萄汁。2012年,消费者权益组织写道,乐购的芒果和西番莲果奶昔含有47%的苹果汁、23%的芒果泥和4%的西番莲果泥。使用便宜的果汁也可以让你拥有喝昂贵果汁的体验。

These days, juice labels have shifted in their descriptions. EU law now holds that “the product name shall be composed of a list of the fruits used, in descending order of the volume of the fruit juices or purées included, as indicated in the list of ingredients.” Though drinks with lychee, passion fruit, mango, and other exotics may still have substantial volumes of apple juice, labels must be more upfront, using names like “Apple and Mango Juice” instead. (Passion fruit rinds, however, have been tested out as a way to get more fibre into yoghurts that can be marketed as probiotic. Sometimes the exotic can hide in the commonplace for the sake of a marketing claim.)

如今,果汁标签中的描述已经发生了改变。欧盟法律现在规定,“产品名称应由一份所使用的水果清单组成,按水果果汁或果泥的含量高低进行降序排列,如配料表所示。”尽管在荔枝、西番莲果、芒果和其他外来的饮料可能仍然含有大量的苹果汁,但产品标签必须更加明确,要用“苹果和芒果汁”这样的名字来代替原有名字。(但是,西番莲果果皮加入酸奶后会使酸奶中含有更多的纤维,所以这些酸奶可以作为益生菌来销售。但有时候,出于市场营销的考虑,这种异国的情调可以隐藏在平凡之中。)

As you eat your high-fibre yoghurt, sip orange juice, or perhaps even someday drink purple milk, keep your eyes open for these everyday glimpses of the chameleons in your food. Love them or avoid them, it’s hard not to be impressed by the ingenuity behind these stand-ins.

所以有一天当你喝高纤维酸奶、橙汁、或者甚至有一天喝紫色的牛奶时,你要用开放的眼光去看待这些食物中的可食用染色剂。无论你爱他们与否,你都不得不为这些这些替代食品背后的智慧所打动。

关键字:美食

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