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培根散文欣赏:论谋叛与变乱(中英文对照)

时间:2015-10-09 15:23:17   来源:
of seditions & troubles 论谋叛与变乱

shepherds of people had need know the calendars of tempests in state; which are commonly greatest, when things grow to equality; as natural tempests are greatest about the equinoxes. and as there are certain hollow blasts of wind, and secret swellings of seas, before a tempest, so are there in states: ille etiam caecos instare tumultus sa epe monet,fraudesqu et operta tumescere bella. libels, and licentious discourses against the state, when they are frequent and open; and in like sort, false news, often running up and down, to the disadvantage of the state, and hastily embraced; are amongst the signs of troubles. virgil giving the pedigree of fame, saith, she was sister to the giants.
牧民之人必须要知道国家中风波底朕兆;这些风波在诸事将达平衡的时候最为剧烈;就好象自然界底暴风雨在将近春分秋分的时候最为剧烈一样。并且,有如在一场暴风雨之前,有中虚的大风和海波底暗涨一样,国家中也有这样的东西:他(太阳)常给警告,预示暗潮将发,并预示叛逆与潜袭即将来临。毁谤与无视法律,背叛国家的言辞,当它们是多见而且公开的时候;还有那些与之类似的不利国家,屡屡传播上下而易为人所信的谣言,这些都是祸乱将来底预兆。委吉尔在叙述谣言之神底家世的时候说她是巨人们底姊妹之一:
illam terra parens ira irritata deorun, extrenmam(ut perhibent)coeoenceladoquesororem progenuit. as if fame were the relics of seditions past; but they are no less, indeed, the preludes of seditions to come. howsoever, he noteth it right, that seditious tumults and seditious fame differ no more, but as brother and sister, masculine and feminine; especially, if it come to that, that the best actions of a state, and the most plausible, and which ought to give greatest contentment, are taken in ill sense, and traduced: for that shows the envy great, as tacitus saith; conflata magnia invidia, seu bene, seu male, gesta premunt. neither doth it follow, that because these fames are a sign of troubles, that the suppressing of them with too much severity, should be a remedy of troubles.
地母因恼怒众神遂生了她——这巨人族最后的一名——可亚斯和安塞拉都斯的妹妹。好象“谣言”是以往的叛谋之遗留似的;但是谣言也确实是将来之叛乱的前奏曲。然而委吉尔所看到的也是对的,就是叛乱的举动和叛乱的谣言其间的差异甚少,有如兄弟之于姊妹,阳性之于阴性一样,尤其是在国家最良好的举措,本是最值得称扬,应当得到最大多数底欢心的,然而竟被加以恶意的解释而受诽谤的时节为然:因为这是表明很大的妒恨之心的,如同泰塔斯所说的一样:“当政府不受欢迎的时候,好的举措和坏的举措同样地触怒人民”。但是因为这些谣言是变乱的朕兆,遂以为用过分严厉的手段压制这些谣言就是一种止乱的方法,这也是不然的。因为不如蔑视这些言倒常常是最好的制止他们的方法;到各处去设法禁止他们反而使群疑延长。
for the despising of them, many times, checks them best; and the going about to stop them, doth but make a wonder long-lived. also that kind of obedience, which tacitus speaketh of, is to be held suspected; erant in cfficio, sed tamen qvi mallent mandata imperantium interpretari, quam exseqid; disputing, excusing, calling upon mandates and directions, is a kind of shaking off the yoke, and assay of disobedience: especially, if in those disputings they which are for the direction, speak fearfully, and tenderly; and those that are against it, audaciously.
还有泰西塔斯所说的那种服从是应当提防的。“他们虽是愿意服从的,但是乐于批评而不乐于服从长官底命令”。争论、自恕,对命令和指示加以吹求,是一种脱离羁绊的举动,一种叛逆的试验;尤其当在争论之中,主张服从者出言畏缩小心而反对服从者畅言无忌的时候是如此的

also, as machiavelli noteth well; when princes, that ought to be common parents, make themselves as a party, and lean to a side, it is as a boat that is overthrown by uneven weight on the one side; as was well seen, in the time of henry the third of france: for first, himself entered league for the extirpation of the protestants; and presently after, the same league was turned upon himself. for when the authority of princes is made but an accessory to a cause; and that there be other bands, that tie faster than the band of sovereignty, kings begin to be put almost out of possession.
又,马基亚委利见得极是,他说那应当为民之父母的人君若自成一党,偏向一方的时候,那就有如一只因载重不平衡而倾复的船一样;这在法兰西王亨利第三之世可以很明显地看得出;因为他自己先加入同盟,要消灭新教徒;此后不久,这个同盟就转过来对付他本人了。因为人君底权威若被造成为仅仅是某一种目的底帮手,并且在君权底维系之上有束缚力更大的维系的时候,那就是作帝王者差不多要受驱逐的时候了。
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